The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan
The government is the highest body of the executive branch. It tops the system of executive bodies, which includes ministries, agencies, committees and local executive bodies — regional, district and town administrations or akimats. The president, with parliamentary approval, appoints and dismisses the prime minister; on the prime minister’s suggestion defines the structure of the government and appoints and dismisses members of government; forms, abolishes and reorganises central executive bodies; and accepts an oath by members of government.
The government drafts the main aspects of the state’s socioeconomic policies, its defence capability, security, public order; presents a central budget to parliament and reports on its implementation; submits draft laws to the Mazhilis and ensures the observation of laws; manages the state property; and drafts foreign policy. The prime minister forms and heads the government and bears responsibility for its work; reports to the president about the main aspects of the government’s work; and signs resolutions. Members of government independently take decisions within their powers. They are responsible before the prime minister for the work of bodies they run. Each chamber of parliament has powers to discuss reports by government members on the issues of their activities. In case of a government member failing to observe laws, deputies can propose the president dismiss that government member.
The government within its powers adopts resolutions which have compulsory force throughout the country. The newly-formed government drafts a plan of action and presents a report on it to parliament. If parliament rejects the government’s programme, it should resubmit the programme within two months. If parliament rejects the programme again by two-thirds of the vote, this means a vote of no confidence in the government.
The government has powers to make lawmaking initiatives. The government composes a plan of lawmaking work under which it submits draft laws to parliament’s Mazhilis. Ministries and state committees take part in drafting laws and their heads bear responsibility for their quality.
The government fulfils orders by the president on submitting laws to the Mazhilis. The government also implements external functions. It takes decisions on the implementation of international agreements and carries out measures to develop foreign relations in the trade, financial, education, science and other spheres. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan acts within the term of powers of the president and resigns before the election of a new president. The work of the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan is coordinated by the Office of the Prime Minister, which is a government body which supervises the activities of ministries and agencies of Kazakhstan.
The main tasks of the Office of the Prime Minister are: the information and analytical, organisational and legal and paperwork provision of the activities of the prime minister and the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan; the pursuit of a single state policy in the sphere of protecting state secrets and coordination of the activities of government bodies and organisations to protect state secrets and ensure information security. The Office of the Prime Minister also coordinates the work of government bodies in the process of drafting and implementing acts by the government and prime minister and monitors the deadlines of implementing acts and orders issued to the government by the head of state, resolutions by the government and prime minister and instructions by the prime minister. The Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan includes 17 ministries.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan (MFA) is the central body that performs foreign political activities and heads the single system of diplomatic service bodies of the Republic of Kazakhstan. The main tasks of the ministry are: drafting a blueprint for and the main aspects of Kazakhstan’s foreign policy and presenting the relevant proposals to the president and the government; implementing the country’s foreign policy and assisting its foreign economic policy and strengthening Kazakhstan’s international reputation; and defending the rights and interests of Kazakhstan, its citizens and legal entities abroad.
The MFA is also responsible for advancing through diplomatic means and methods Kazakhstan’s efforts to ensure international peace, global and regional security; ensuring through diplomatic means and methods the protection of sovereignty, security, territorial integrity and the inviolability of borders of the Republic of Kazakhstan, its political, trade and economic and other interests in relations with foreign countries and international organisations.
The ministry also drafts proposals for the president on Kazakhstan’s foreign political and foreign economic strategy and implements the president’s international initiatives. The Ministry of Defence of the Republic of Kazakhstan leads the armed forces, solves tasks relating to the country’s defence and drafts a blueprint for building and developing the armed forces, other armed and military formations, conducts a single military and technical policy in the state, drafts a state programme for the development of weapons and military equipment and proposals on state defence order and spending on defence, and provides material and technical supplies to the armed forces and cooperates with other government agencies on issues surrounding the defence of the country.
The chief organ to manage the country’s armed forces during peacetime and war is the Committee of the Chiefs of Staffs of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan. It coordinates plans for the creation and development of the armed forces, other armed and military formations, their speedy combat and mobilisation preparations, organises and conducts operative-strategic plans for the use and coordination of the armed forces, other armed and military formations and drafts plans for speedy preparation of the country in the interests of defence. Relevant legislative acts of Kazakhstan regulate the provision of military security of the state when there is a threat and during war, the rules for creating and operating wartime government agencies and military command. The Ministry of Transport and Communications of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central body which manages and coordinates any inter-sectoral coordination of issues around the development and implementation of state policy in the transport and telecommunications sphere.
The main tasks of the Ministry of Transport and Communications are: the formation of state policy in the transport and communications sphere and the reactive creation of an efficient and technologically advanced transport and telecommunications system to meet the demands of the economy and society for transport and telecoms services.
The ministry includes: the Committee for the Development of Transport Infrastructure, the Railways Committee, the Civil Aviation Committee and the Transport Control Committee. The main functions of the Ministry of Transport and Communications are: the formation of state policy in the transport and telecoms sphere; drafting government and sectoral programmes for the development of transport and telecoms networks; drafting legislative acts, proposals to improve the application of legislation and drafting and adopting legislative acts regarding transport and telecoms issues it is responsible for.
In addition, its functions include drafting and adopting technical and other standards in the transport and telecoms sphere on issues which are within the powers of the ministry; making predictions and offering timely and quality services to meet the transport and telecoms needs of the country and the economy.
The Ministry of Economy and Budget Planning of the Republic of Kazakhstan is involved in creating and developing a system of state planning to help the efficient implementation of priorities of Kazakhstan’s socioeconomic development. The main tasks of the Ministry of Economy and Budget Planning are: the formulation of strategic goals for and aspects of the main priorities of Kazakhstan’s socioeconomic development; the formulation of state fiscal, customs and budget investment policies with account of priorities of the country’s socioeconomic development and monetary-credit policy and policy in the sphere of international economic and financial relations. In addition, the ministry drafts government policy in the sphere of managing state-owned assets in various sectors of the economy.
The Ministry of Culture and Information of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central executive body of Kazakhstan, and its main purpose is to formulate state policy in the spheres of culture, information, domestic political stability, interethnic accord and the development of languages, archives and paperwork, publishing and printing. The ministry includes the Culture Committee, the Information and Archives Committee and the Languages Committee. The Ministry of Health of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central executive body which manages the sphere of healthcare, medical and pharmaceutical education. The main functions of the Ministry of Health are: developing state policy in the healthcare sphere, medical science and medical and pharmaceutical education; ensuring free medical services to the level guaranteed by the government (stipulated in legislation). In addition, the ministry is also responsible for supplying safe, efficient and quality medicines to the population and medical establishments.
The ministry incorporates the Committee for Sanitary and Epidemiological Supervision, the Pharmacy Committee and the Committee for Monitoring the Quality of Medical Services. The Ministry of Agriculture of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central executive body that fulfils state policy in the spheres of agriculture, forestry, fishery and hunting, environmental protection territories and the management of water resources and flora and fauna resources. The ministry coordinates the work in the spheres of agricultural machine-building, veterinary, phyto-sanitary, pedigree animal husbandry, melioration, irrigation and drainage, and food production.
This ministry includes the Water Resources Committee and the Committee for Forestry, Fish and Hunting Industry.The Ministry of Employment and Social Security of the Republic of Kazakhstan manages the sphere of labour and social relations and conducts any inter-sectoral coordination in it.
The main objectives of the ministry are: formulating state policy in the spheres of labour, health and safety at workplace, employment, social partnership, pension, social insurance and migration in line with its powers. The ministry runs territorial bodies in regions and Astana and Almaty. It also includes the Migration Committee. The Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central executive body that formulates state policy and coordinates management processes in the spheres of energy, mineral resources, oil and gas, petrochemistry and nuclear, energy-saving and the use of renewable and non-traditional sources of energy. The main objective of this ministry is to ensure the sustainable development of Kazakhstan’s economy.
The ministry also drafts programmes for the development of the country’s fuel and energy sector and ensures the sector’s development and the country’s energy security and independence. In addition, one of the ministry’s most important functions is to ensure the replenishment of the mineral resource base, the rational use of mineral resources and the comprehensive development of petrochemical productions.
The Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Kazakhstan conducts management and inter-sectoral coordination in the spheres of education and science. The main objectives of the ministry are: formulating a single state policy in the spheres of education, science, technology and aerospace activities and the state youth policy; creating the conditions necessary for people to receive education; improving scientific research and boosting the nation’s labour competitiveness; ensuring the protection of rights and legal interests of children. The ministry includes the Committee for Supervision and Examination in the Education and Science Sphere and the Aerospace Committee. In line with legislation, the Ministry of Education and Science drafts blueprints, strategies, state and targeted programmes and plans to implement state policy in the spheres of education, science and technology and the state youth policy; to ensure rights and legal interests of children; formulate the policy to improve the quality of education and draft the innovation policy in the spheres of education, science and aerospace and develop the space sector.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Republic of Kazakhstan (MIA) is a central executive body that manages the system of interior bodies of Kazakhstan and protects public order and ensures public security in Kazakhstan. The ministry implements state policies on the law-enforcement.
The objectives of the interior bodies are: protecting public order and ensuring public security, including in emergency situations and under martial law; preventing, investigating and uncovering crimes and administrative violations and searching for criminals; conducting preliminary investigation, questioning and administrative procedures within remits defined by legislation. In addition, the ministry’s powers include: detecting and preventing homelessness and crimes by minors; ensuring traffic safety; guarding government and other facilities and individuals and escorting detainees and convicts, preventing terrorist attacks and releasing hostages. The ministry also monitors the observance of rules of living in Kazakhstan by foreign citizens and stateless persons. The activities of interior bodies should be based on the principles of lawfulness, the unity of command, the unity of the system of interior bodies, transparency and coordination with other law-enforcement and government agencies, officials, organisations and citizens.
The Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Republic of Kazakhstan performs the functions that draft state policy and legislative regulations in the sphere of industrial development, the development of the defence industry and the scientific, technical and innovative development of the country. This ministry also coordinates the development of the trade, entrepreneurship and protection of competition, construction and architecture, landscaping and housing and utilities spheres. The most important objective of this ministry is to create favourable conditions for encouraging private investment in the non-extractive sector of the economy.
The ministry includes the Committee for Industry and Scientific and Technical Development, the Committee for the Regulation of Trade and Tourism Activities, the Committee for the Protection of Competition, the Committee for Construction and the Housing and Utilities Sphere, the Committee for Technical Regulation and Metrology and the Investment Committee. The Ministry of Environmental Protection of the Republic of Kazakhstan conducts management and inter-sectoral coordination on the drafting and implementation of state policy in the sphere of environmental protection and the use of natural resources. The main objective of the ministry is to improve the environment and achieve favourable levels of the environmentally sustainable development of society. The ministry incorporates the Committee for the Supervision of Environmental Protection and territorial environmental protection bodies in the regions, Astana and Almaty. In line with legislation, the ministry formulates state policy on environmental protection and drafts proposals to formulate a single state policy in this sphere.
This ministry also develops and improves the system of state management in the environmental protection sphere, state environmental expert examination, activities relating to the issuing of permits, licences and environmental conclusions, regulation and standardisation within its remits and a system of economic methods and mechanisms of encouragement of the rational use of natural resources and environmental protection. The Ministry of Finance of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central executive body that manages the budget and financial sphere. The main objectives of the ministry are: formulating and implementing state policy on the budget, customs and tax control, internal financial control and state purchases. This ministry also conducts state regulation of the production and sale of tobacco products, ethyl alcohol and alcoholic products and certain types of petroleum products. The ministry’s powers also include issues of bankruptcy, out-of-court procedures of liquidation of indebted companies, rehabilitation procedures relating to insolvent debtors, the management of state property, accountancy, financial reporting and auditing.
The ministry includes the Treasury Committee, the Customs Control Committee, the Tax Committee, the Financial Control and State Procurement Committee, the Committee for Work with Insolvent Debtors, and the State Property and Privatisation Committee.
The Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Kazakhstan is a central executive body of Kazakhstan that manages the sphere of the legislative provision of activities of government and public organisations in the country. The main objectives of the ministry are: providing a legislative basis for the work of the state; ensuring the legality of the work government agencies, organisations, officials and citizens; ensuring the protection of the rights and lawful interests of citizens and organisations.
The ministry includes territorial bodies in the regions, Astana and Almaty and the Registration Service Committee, the Intellectual Property Rights Committee, the Penal and Penitentiary System Committee, and the Committee for Legal Advice and Services.
In the order set by legislation, the Ministry of Justice develops national legislation, organises lawmaking work and conducts the legal examination of legislative acts. Its powers also include providing a legal basis for the drafting and conclusion of Kazakhstan’s international agreements; offering legal advice and services to the population; and protecting intellectual property. Relatively recently the ministry’s functions expanded into administering criminal punishment and the temporary isolation of suspects in detention centres.
In addition, the ministry supervises the government registration of legal entities, property rights and operations with them, legislative acts, acts of civil status, registration of citizens, registration of movable property as security and issuance of documents to citizens of Kazakhstan.
The Ministry of Emergencies of the Republic of Kazakhstan formulates state policy in the sphere of preventing emergency situations of a natural or manmade nature, handling the consequences of these and civil defence. This ministry is responsible for state control in the sphere of fire and industrial safety, and health and safety at hazardous production facilities. The ministry also monitors safety in industry and the building and expanding of state material reserves, ensuring the functioning and development of the state system for the prevention and handling of emergency situations, and the prevention and extinguishing of fires.
The ministry incorporates territorial bodies in the regions, Astana and Almaty, the Committee for State Control and Supervision in the Sphere of Emergency Situations and the Committee for State Material Reserves. In line with the tasks delegated to it, the ministry prevents and clears up natural and manmade emergency situations and takes civil defence measures. In addition, it drafts proposals to use material, technical, food, medical and other resources from state and mobilisation reserves and means from government reserves.
The Ministry of Tourism and Sport of the Republic of Kazakhstan formulates state policy in the spheres of tourism and sport. The development of tourism has been acquiring particular importance for the country’s economy. The development of amateur and professional sport in Kazakhstan is also an important aspect of the government’s activities that aims to diversify the development of the economy and the social sphere in Kazakhstan. The ministry includes the Tourism Committee and the Sport Committee.